Kidney is one organ of the human body are included in the excretory system, other organs of the excretory system are the heart, lungs, and skin.In medicine the kidneys called ‘ren’ (renal / kidney). Shaped like a kidney bean, numbered pair and is located in the waist area. The size is approximately 11x 6x 3 cm. It weighs between 120-170 grams.Kidney structure consists of: leather kidney (cortex), kidney marrow (medulla) and renal cavity (pelvis). In the skin there are millions of nephrons kidney that functions as a blood filter. Each nephron is composed of the Board of Malpighi and the channel length (tubules) that curled.
1. Filter and clean the blood of substances the body metabolism
2. Excrete excessive amounts of substances
3. Reabsorption (re-absorption) of certain electrolytes conducted by the renal tubules
4. Keeping keseimbanganan acid-base in the human body
5. Hormones produce substances that contribute to form and mature red blood cells (SDM) in the bone marrow.
Urine Formation Process
The kidneys play a role in the formation of urine that occurs through a series of processes, ie filtering, absorption and re-augmentation.
1. Filtering (filtration)
The process of urine formation begins with the filtration of blood that occurs in the glomerular capillaries. Glomerular capillary cells are porous (podosit), pressure and high permeability in the glomerulus facilitate the screening process.In addition to filtering, also occurred in the re-absorption glomelurus blood cells, platelets, and most of the plasma proteins.The result is called the glomerular filtration glomerolus filtrate or primary urine, containing amino acids, glucose, sodium, potassium, and other salts
2. Re-absorption (reabsorption)
The materials are still needed in the urine will pimer reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubules while the addition of substances and residual urea.
Pervasive substance in these tubules in two ways. Sugars and amino acids seep through diffusion events, while the water through osmosis events. Water absorption occurs in the proximal tubule and distal tubule.
Substances that are needed such as glucose and amino acids returned to the blood. Substance ammonia, drugs such as penicillin, excess salt and other materials in the filtrate removed with urine.
After the tubular reabsorption of the secondary will produce urine, substances that are needed will not be found again. In contrast, the concentration of substances that are toxic waste products increases, such as urea.
Augmentation is the process of adding the waste and urea from the distal convoluted tubule happening.
Of renal tubule-tububulus, urine will head kidney cavity, next to the bladder through the bile duct. If you have a full bladder contains urine, the bladder wall will be depressed so that the resulting feeling the urge to urinate. Urine will come out through the urethra.
The composition of urine is expelled through the urethra is water, salt, urea and the rest of other substances, such as bile pigment that gives color and smell function in urine.
Abnormalities in the kidneys such as kidney failure and kidney stones.
1. Kidney Failure
Kidney failure is a kidney disorder in which the kidneys are unable to function properly the filter and clean the blood of metabolic waste substances.
Among the causes of kidney failure caused by:
1. Eating fatty foods
2. High blood cholesterol
3. Lack of exercise
4. Smoking, and
5. Drinking alcoholic beverages.
Overcoming Kidney Failure
Advancement of science, allowing renal function replaced. Replacement of Renal function is known as Replacement Therapy (RRT) or renal replacement therapy (TPG).
There are two ways of TPG, the transplant / kidney transplant and dialysis / dialysis.
Dialysis / dialysis can be divided into:
1. HD (hemodialysis), dialysis with the help of machines
2. PD (peritoneal dialysis), dialysis through abdominal cavity
3. Kidney Stones
Urine contains many minerals and other chemicals. Urine not necessarily dissolve all that. If we are not drinking or stop urinating frequently, these minerals can precipitate out and form kidney stones.
Kidney stones are crystals that look like stones that form in the kidneys. The crystals are going to get together and each attaches to the formation of “stones”. If urinary tract stones clog the kidneys and bladder, urinary tract similar to humans because strong kink the hose will withstand the urine can not get out. It would cause great pain.